Duties Of A Roofer

With the rapid increase in the number of construction services going on all over the globe, the roofing sector, which is a part of the construction work, has grown exponentially. This can be attributed to the fact that every house of building needs a roof, which serves a very basic but, yet very important function, which is to protect the belongings and their inhabitants in the building. With the high increase in the number of buildings being brought up day in day out the demand for roofers have gone beyond measure. Therefore, in case you are looking for an area where you can start your career on is the roofing sector. Roofers have started getting demand as not many people are looking for hands on skills in roofing who have skills. This article therefor will delve into the duties that being a roofer entails.

Roof inspection
One of the main duty that the roofer does is inspecting the roof of any damage. Wherever v a disaster has struck it is always advisable to get to examine the status of your roof so as you cannot sit pretty while your roof is continuing to get damage. Not responding to the roof damage on time makes the roof to damage further which is very problematic and costly, as you will be required to repair t with much more resources. Therefore, whenever you have a problem with your roof it is advisable to call a roofer who will examine the roof and give expert opinion on the state of the roof and from therefore he or she can advise you on the way forward.

Quantifies the roof materials
Wherever you are building and you want to install a roof, you need to know the amount of the roofing materials that you will be needed to buy. It would be hard to know this on your own and that is where the roofer comes in. he or she measures the measurements of your roof and advises on the amount of resources that are required to build the roof. In addition to giving you, the quantities needed, the roofer advises you on the pricing because he or she knows the prices of each material and therefore gives you a figure, which you can buy the materials with. Roofers are therefore very helpful and important personnel in the construction of roofs.

Install and repair roofs
One of the main duty of a roofer is to be able to install a roof in a building. This is one of the activities that these roofers are trained to do. A roofer is able to install any type of roof that you may have be it with different styles or different materials. In addition, a roofer is able to repair roofs wherever they are broken or are leaking this specifically helps to reduce the water damage that leakages cause. In case you have a problem, with your roof therefore roofers offers you the best solution to it and even can give you advice on how to maintain your roof.

Things That Determine The Cost Of The Dumpster Rental

Price is one of the key factor to consider when looking for a dumpster rental . The reason is that they vary according to the different companies that offer such services. They also depend with factors like the distance of travel to the site, the amount of the debris to be accumulated by the containers among other. The following points below show the major factors that contribute to the determination of the prize of a given dumpster rental to the site.

The town of delivery. One of major item should in defining the cost of the dumpster rental is the specific place where the container will be transported. In most cases, residential estate and commercial areas are charged different. This depend on the category of people living in those area. Also, rural area and urban area are charge different. In most cases, one will find that those living in urban area will have to be charge a great prize that people living in rural area. Hence, a given place has a lot of impact when it comes to prize of the dumpster. Also, the prize vary since rural areas are entitled to mostly small project unlike in the case with most urban centers.

Type of debris found the given site. Another vital factor to determine the prize of the dumpster is the type of the waste to be found in a given site. For those project dealing with heavy water products, the prize will be a bit a high. On the other hand, projects entitled to dealing with lighter material will be charged at a lower prize. This is due to the weight the car that is suppost to fuel the waste of the site will encounter when handling the load. Thus a major contributing element to defining the amount of money to be charge for any particular load of waste material.

The nature of the transportation roots. Some areas have got poor transportation means. Fueling to such place may be quite expensive. Other areas are also affected by the traffic jams. Due such factors, there may be an increase in the charging rate of the dumpster in order to reach the customer with ease and a lot of convenience. Area that are usually prone to certain weather conditions can also be charges with different prize from other place. For examples, place that are usually affected by rainfall in most of the time will experience slightly high rates than those than which are dry.

By looking into the above factors, it is simple to determine the price of the dumpster rental that one is likely to require for the running project. People with little knowledge in come up with required figure can easily contact the rental company they wish to partner with. Having such tips in own mind, the process of renting dumpsters becomes easy to undergoes as well as to acquire from the responsible person. Ensure one determines such feature before consulting the relevant company for any facility required in specific sites or projects.

What Residential Roofing Entails

Most people do not know how to handle their roofing system. You may be wondering if you have a roof leak, if it is time for you to call in your insurance company or if what you need is to have your roof repaired. You may even have to have the entire roof replaced, and you may not have an idea at all until things start to get out of hand. If you are unsure about your roofing system, the best thing for you to do would be to call in a roof expert or contractor since they know best especially when it comes to handling your roof as well as giving you expert advice and opinion. By taking the time to get a well-qualified company, you should be sure that you are going to get the most straight and honest answers which will also ensure that all your roofing problems are solved effectively

What is a residential roofing repair?

When it comes to residential roofing repair, dealing with leaks that have been noticed early enough is usually the best ways of dealing with a roof problem as soon as possible. A roof leak can be a stressful affair not forgetting how inconvenient it may end up becoming. Instead of wasting time and let the leak do some severe damage on your drywall, it is crucial that you call in a roofing expert as soon as possible so that they can be able to figure out where the problem is and also make sure that it is sorted out in the shortest amount of time possible.

When you hire an expert, it will only take them a short amount of time before they can be able to figure out the main cause of your roof leak. Once the cause has been determined, the contractors are going to come up with different ways in which they can be able to address the issue which will ultimately lead to the repair of your roofing system. Since most roofing companies want to get one job quickly done so that they can rush to the next, you need to make sure that you go for a company that pays close attention to every single detail. This is because most of the common roofing issues that most people tend to experience are normally caused by work that was not properly done. You do not want to spend another amount of money to fix your roof again which is why you need to make sure that it is done in the best possible way.

The replacement of your residential roof

Every roof has its time and there may reach a point whereby you may need to have it replaced. When this happens, do not go and hire the first roofing contractor or expert that comes your way so that you can be able to quickly do the work. You need to understand that a roof replacement is something that is going to cost you a lot of money which is why you only need to hire an expert to do it.

How To Maintain Your Gutters And Downspouts

A gutter and downspout are very important when it comes to your roofing needs. They are very effective when you want to collect rainwater and to some extent, they play a very important role when it comes to the décor of your house. There are different kinds of gutters and downspouts that come in different colors and made from different materials that you can choose for your roof. Maintaining gutters and downspouts is very easy, and it is something that you can do yourself without needing any professional roofers assistance.

The first thing you need to do is to clean your gutter from all the grime and dirt that will have accumulated over time. Even though the gutter gets to collect rainwater, you have to keep in mind that during the days when its not raining, dirt is accumulating on your gutter and with time, this develops into mud that can end up caking on your gutter, and if pushed down the downspout, it can lead to clogging. By use of a ladder, you can always clean out your gutter and try as much as possible to make sure that the passageway to the downspout is free of debris. Leaves are also other things that can lead to your gutter not working efficiently. The worst part is when the leaves get pushed down the downspout by filthy water which could lead to blockage bursting when the water pressure gets to be too much.

If you notice that your gutters are sagging or that the amount of water does not much with what is coming out of your downspout, then you have a clogging problem. Even during the rain, you can be able to clean out the dirt and debris. Depending on the kind of downspout you have, you might have to dismantle it to remove whatever is clogging it up. Sometimes small animals like rats or bird can die in the gutter and get pushed down the downspout which would cause a serious health issue if the water you collect is to be re-used. Thats why it is very important to make sure the gutter and downspout are cleaned up very well.

You should also check to make sure that the spikes in your gutter are working as intended. If the spikes are faulty for some reason, your gutter could end up falling off and especially during heavy rains. Always make sure to check your gutters and downspouts to ensure that everything is as it is supposed to be. The last thing you want is for your gutter to fall off your roof due to poor maintenance. Sometimes the gutter and downspouts can get holes in them. You can be able to notice this during rain, or you could always pour some water to identify any leakages which you can then seal using silicon.

The biggest challenge you can expect from downspouts is them falling off because of the rivets getting lose. You can easily fix this when you do periodic checks and inspections on your gutter and downspouts.

Factors To Consider When Looking For Gas Line Repairer

Gas lines can be affected by a number of effects. They include the pinch of the gas hose, installation pipes where there are tree roots which damage the pipes. other causes can be due to high pressure in the pipes. All these defects should be carried out by a professional plumber who has general knowledge of dealing with such defects. In order to carry out the repairing exercise effectively, there are a number of major features that the professional should possess. These characteristics includes the following discussed below.

The process should be carried out by a professional. A professional gas line repairer should ensure that all the relevant documents required when carrying out the task are ensured. They involve the licenses from the relevant body. This will ensure that the house remains as according to the current code. Dealing with a person who is not fully conversant with the process can lead one to performing vital effect in environment. This can cause flames that can lead to fire which may bring up other loss to the family and to the environment as well.

Adding of new appliances during the repairing process. It is necessary for one to consider installing a new gas line system. This is safer and will rule out all the old systems that may be corroded or rather almost to wear out. In case one has got no enough knowledge, it is nice to ask the profession to help one in coming up with the best materials for the piping. The person should also be in a position of guiding the individual on all the news ways of expanding the gas line systems. However, it is good to consider a variety of opportunities in case one was dealing with one method. For example, people dealing with only natural gas may require to add stoves and ovens as well as gas-powered laundry machines.

When repairing, it is good to replace all the corroded pipes. Old pipes are usually affected by corrosion. Therefore, take initiative of having to replace such material while carrying out the repair work is very effective. Corrosion may be accelerated by rust which can lead to the leakage of gas. Thus, it is important to ensure that the professional plumber makes all the necessary survey of the gasline plumbing and pipes that needs to be upgraded.

Cost of the work to be executed. It is important to consider the most convenient plumber or professional who will carry out the repair works with reasonable rates. Exaggeration of the figures by individual should lead to the disqualification of the professional. Having in mind the right estimates of such cases is very important. This will help one in coming up with most convenient person who is fit for the gas line repairs. Taking note on these issues is very important and should be considered whenever dealing with repairs or general construction works. Gas line repairs should thus be with great care since it can cause severe damage to both property and people.

Description Of Gas Line Repairs And What It Entails

Gas line is an important component used in many homes today for the purpose of heating. It is usually connected to the gas furnace, water heater, stoves or other appliances used at home. According to the modern society, natural gas is the most widely used material for such purposes. The installation of natural gas is usually carried out by qualified people who have a wide knowledge in dealing with such issues.

It some instances, the gas line can develop problems due to incorrect appliances. This can cause gas leakage which is dangerous to human being. To solve this problem, it is important to seek a professional who can handle the case. Fixing such issue on won is very dangerous since it can cause bursting of the gas causing fire in the room. The result of the fire is due to the flaming characteristics found in natural gas. Hence, it is advisable to consult a professional gas plumbing expert.

Another problem that affect the gas line leading to its repairs is the aging of the pipes. Building up of gas pressure can also result to negative impact when it comes to the use of natural gas. These problems can be handled by seeking a plumber who is capable of fixing new pipes that can be used as gas lines for the purpose of heating at home. Regulating of the gas pressure to the require amount is also another major element to be considered to minimize negative repercussion. Hence care should be taken where necessary.

Coming up with gas lines where the tree roots pass is not safe for human being. This can lead to bad accident during the excavation process thus causing the flaming of the natural gas. It is thus important to observe the key areas where one should install piping for the gas line to be used at homes. Gas leakage is quite difficult to detect especially when dealing with natural gas. Therefore, much care should be taken in handling such cases. The repair of gas lines depends solely on the nature of the effects that has already occurred at a given place.

Another major problem that can lead to the gas line repair is pinching of the gas hose. These effect cause leakages on the hose and therefore should be taken in to account before a severe mess is encountered. The issues can be taken care off by a plumber or rather by a plumbing company that deals with such issues. However, in case one is in a position of rectifying any gas line leakage; turning off all the gas supply. Whenever the case is vital, the individual should continue and seek a person who can excite the work with safety and ease of all the surrounding features as well as the life of the human being. It should be noted that; when dealing with main supply line, licensed plumber should be consulted for assistance to avoid tampering with other facilities that can destruct operation of supply to other persons.

All You Need To Know About Modified Bitumen Roof Systems

The manufacturing method
The Modified Bitumen Roof Systems are usually added to the standard asphalt roofing systems so that they can be able to replace any plasticizers that may have been removed when the distillation process has been carried out. What happens is that Modified Bitumen Roof Systems is no9rmally reinforced with either polyester fiber or fiberglass so that it can be able to increase not only the strength but also the durability of the roofing system in question. The most common types of this roofing system are the APP and the SBS. The app which stands for attactic polypropylene, plays a significant role when it comes to the increasing the aging ability of the entire roofing system. On the other hand, the SBS better known as Synthetic rubber additive is used when it comes to the improving and increasing the flexibility of the roofing system.

The application methods that are used
When it comes to Modified Bitumen Roof Systems, the installation process is normally done with a kind of torch methods, the use of cold adhesives and asphalt as well. A roofing expert who has worked with this type of roofing system may be in a better position to explain to you exactly how the application method works. Since they have the right amount of skill in this field, they are also able to ensure that the application method is done in a professional manner.

What are the benefits of Modified Bitumen Roof Systems?
There are a number of benefits that come with this type of roofing system. This is also another reason as to why you should always opt to go with this type of roofing system. The major benefits have been mentioned below.

They are highly resistant to weather. No matter the weather condition, the Modified Bitumen Roof Systems are able to withstand and high or low weather conditions which is why they can be used in many places. Even though their installation process may end up costing you a good amount of money, compared to what you are going to be getting then this is definitely a good deal.

They are highly durable. These type of roofing systems have been known to last for a long period of time. This is because of the high quality of material that they are made of. They are not only durable but strong as well ensuring that a homeowner is able to get good value for their money in the long run.

They not only expand, but they are also flexible and they also come with contracts. This feature makes it easy for one to work with this type of roofing system. The contract ensures that you are able to be catered for just in case they are not able to meet your expectations.

They can be repaired easily.

The Modified Bitumen Roof Systems rolls that are factory manufactured tend to have an easier quality control and are also very easy to install.

Some Tips On Chimney Sweeping

All open fires need regular maintenance at keep them working efficiently and safely. Without this fundamental work, the potential risk of a chimney fire or carbon monoxide poisoning rises significantly. Among even the key bits of maintenance is even the junk of the chimney stack or flue. This eliminates all the carbon along with other waste material produced by burning solid fuel. Each type of fuel Produces different types of waste, and affects how on a regular basis the chimney or flue will need sweeping. An expert chimney sweep will use a wide range of brushes and tools that are attached to rods that are fed up in the foot of even the chimney to clean even the soot in even the walls of even the chimney or even the liner.

The optimum time to have the fireplace Clean is at the start of autumn, after the soot had chance to dry throughout the summer and is difficult and brittle. This assists even the chimney sweep, and is simply removed. Additionally sweeping after the fire has been utilized continually for a couple days, which creates the same effect. The lose soot along with creosote will then fall to the foot of even the chimney stack, where even the sweep may remove all of it by utilizing a strong industrial vacuum. Whilst the cleaning is done, the chimney sweep will be capable of making a pro assessment of the condition of the chimney like a whole.

The brickwork can be failing in parts, which might lead to fumes in the flame escaping to the house. This is typical with older qualities as the mortar between your bricks has a limited lifespan, and begins to crumble away with time, and thru continually warming up and cooling. The solution for this is to possess the chimney relined. Concrete liner – An inflatable mask is placed inside even the full height of even the chimney stack and concrete is bad around it. When even the concrete has gone hard even the template is removed and a smaller concrete flue is left.

A good solution, but has problems. Where the stack has bends within it. Clay, pumice, ceramic coatings – are mainly installed in new properties, but when they’re used on older buildings it’s usually the case to possess to get rid of sections of even the chimney wall and install even the liner and after that rebuild along with move up even the stack stage by stage. The most costly product, but long haul the strongest solution. Stainless Steel Finishes – installed by dropping even the liner down even the existing chimney and capping off towards the top and bottom.

The Role Of Surge Protection

My simple high school physics tells me that current is never constant. Maybe your electrician will be able to explain further on this phenomenon. For now, lets stick to the fact that current can shift either upwards or downwards. This usually has an impact on the machines consuming such kind of current. All homeowners are advised to take this seriously and consider having the right surge protection in place. You may not detect a spike on your own. Surge protection devices are the ones to do the job. This will help your devices remain of high quality and without failure. As it is seen in many events, the surge damages show up at a time when you expect not. It could the cause of a big inconvenience. If you still dont get this surge protection concept, make sure you seek advice from your electrician. You already start to see why this protection is vital. Here are some supportive points.

Keep your appliances safe

In the past, you could expect to see your machine burn to confirm of its damage. These days, machines are made up of super sensitive component. Microprocessors are common in the modern electronic machines. The modern microprocessors in fax machines, microwaves, printers and other devices can easily get damaged. And do you know what that would mean? It could be the reason why some of your appliances are not working. The end result will be calling an electrician to fix the appliances. Replacing the microprocessor will be the main task. In worse cases, it could replacing the entire appliances you can imagine the cost that comes with that. With a surge protector in place, all these agonies are left out.

Increase resale value

If you are thinking of reselling your home someday, then you need to do anything possible to add value to it. Having a surge protector is the way to go. It is not just an addition to keep your appliances safe. It also delivers a plus with regard to your home value. If you are to buy a home as well, you would prefer a home with a surge protection over one that doesnt have.

Use your money otherwise

If you leave out the surge protection, chances are that you increase the risk level in your home. Devices get damaged as a result. You will be forced to invite electricians to help you bring them back to life. In the even repairs are not enough, then replacing all the devices will be necessary. And where is the money to do that? All these are unnecessary expenses. You end up being the loser even with the huge number of inconveniences that come before things go back to order.
You can expect that there are two types of surge protectors. Some are for specific appliances while others cover the entire home. The latter is better for full protection.

Tips To Make Use Of When Choosing Hvac Contractors

It is important for you to understand that just because a certain HVAC contractor is popular, this does not mean that they are the right person to work in your facility. HVAC contractors are always in high demand because many business and individuals constantly need these services for either a repair, a service or replacement. When looking for the right HVAC contractor to hire, it is advisable that you take the time to do your homework properly so that you get the very best. Also, it is important for you to take the time to look at the reputation and the credibility of the contractor you are thinking of hiring before you make the final decision. Make use of the following tips so that you are able to make sure that you will be getting good value for your money.

Where is it can you find the best HVAC contractor?

You could start by looking at the Air conditioning Contractors of America also known as ACCA. This is known as a non-profitable organization which is comprised of a total of over 60,000 professionals and around 4,000 different businesses. Since these businesses have been found to be in good standing, you should be sure that they are going to be able to provide you with very good referrals from some of the previous jobs that they may have handled before.

Another option could be going ahead and taking a look at Angie’s list since you can be able to find differ ratings of websites and consumer reviews here. You could also use the website to check if the HVAC contractor or company you are looking at is a legit one and if it is a company that you can be able to trust. Also look if they are able to provide you with work that is of the highest quality and one that you will feel comfortable with once it is completed.

The next option that you could make use of is to ask for official reviews, referrals, and recommendations. You could talk to your neighbors, your friends and also your colleagues at work not forgetting your family members. Since these are people who are in your circle, you should be sure that they are not going to mislead you in any way.

Making use of the Better Business Bureau

The Better Business Bureau (BBB) can be very helpful to you especially if you want to double check if a particular HVAC contractor you are looking into is legit. The website can be able to show you if customers have made previous complaints about the company in question. You could contact their offices or look at their website for any inquiries that you may have.

Common Repair Services For Air Conditioning Systems

Anybody will tell you how important air conditioning systems are for their buildings. They are more likely to understand the vital role played by the system, when the system is actually down. A well-functioning air conditioning will provide comfortable internal environments just like you like it. A home will feel like a home. Just like any other system, air condition system can experience moments of hiccups due to damages, age, wear or anything else that compromises their functionality. The system can fail completely leading to a shut down or if you are lucky, just partially. Either way, your comfortable internal environments will be compromised in some way until the necessary repairs are done.
The good part is that there are certain common failures that you can expect from almost all air conditioning systems. You can hence be vigilant on the signs that show the risk of such compromises and act accordingly. Here are the common issues that often stand on the way of your air condition system.

1. Coils getting frozen
Some homeowners get excited to see ice on the air conditioning coils. They tend to think that the system is super effective and just doing its job. On the contrary, the system is performing way below average. Presence of ice is a threat to the air conditioning system. Its parts can get damaged due to that. Ice is basically water and water damage can be the same as ice damage. Dirt inside the system could be the trigger to this kind of a problem. You need to ensure that there is proper air flow inside the system to prevent buildup of dust. Another trigger to frozen coils could be leak on refrigerant line inside your system. Effective repairs will be applied after the main cause of your problem is determined by the expert you hire for repairs. Best experts will also advice you accordingly on what to do to prevent future frozen coils.

2. Damages to the condenser
Your condenser will mostly be on the outside of your home. This exposes it to harsh conditions that could trigger damages. It can be the weather, the pests or simply the debris. When the condenser is compromised, it stays off duty. Being a vital component, the entire system may fail. You will need to call an expert service technician to save you the trouble.

3. Electrical problems
You can expect there to be electrical components inside your air conditioning systems. Due to one reason or another, the connections can be compromised leading to shut down of the systems. It could be pest damage, buildup of dust or normal age factors that trigger the problem. Outdated and old electrical systems for example will find it hard to provide enough power to the air-conditioning system. You need a professional technician to repair the problem in line with the safety codes.

Another common problem that causes alarm is the clogging of drain clogs. After you discover of any of these issues, you should call your technician as soon as possible to restore normality inside your house.

4 Reasons To Employ Professional Cleaners

Are you still thinking twice about hiring professional cleaners? Whether you want to thoroughly clean your home or office, there are plenty of benefits to working with professionals instead of doing things by yourself. While it means investing money upfront, it’s vital that you consider the long-term benefits to realise the many benefits a professional cleaning company can offer. Keep reading to learn the top 4 reasons to employ professional cleaners like this typical business in Wales.

Efficient Cleaning Processes

If you take the DIY route, you might have to spend a whole lot of time trying to clean your carpets and furniture. Without powerful cleaning equipment, the job may simply be too inefficient. On the contrary, professional cleaners are equipped with the right tools for all kinds of cleaning tasks. They also have special cleaning products to eliminate stains from carpets and upholstery. You can’t enjoy the same level of cleanliness if you’re limited to using a broom and a mop.

Avoid Intensive Labor

Simply thinking about all the cleaning you need to do can stress you out. You might have to dedicate a whole day or even more just to clean the entire home or office. If you do not have the luxury of time, then it’s best to hire cleaning experts to do the job for you. You can enlist their services regularly, every 3-4 months for example, to ensure that your property remains clean all the time.

Extend Carpet and Furniture Lifespan

Many ignore the fact that clean carpets last longer. You don’t want to just leave your carpets to accumulate dust, allergens and other kinds of pollutants. If possible, you want your carpets to remain in pristine condition even after several years of wear and tear. Professional carpet cleaners have the necessary cleaning solutions to keep your carpets looking fresh and clean. This can effectively prolong the lifespan of your carpets and other upholstery while enhancing the look of your home or office at the same time.

Improve Indoor Air Quality

It’s also important to consider the health benefits of hiring professional cleaners. By getting rid of contaminants embedded within the deep fibres of your carpets, you can ensure that everyone breathes dust-free air inside your property. Regular vacuuming wouldn’t afford you this benefit. Only cleaning experts can get rid of microscopic and harmful pollutants, making sure that the quality of indoor air in your home or office isn’t compromised.

Why Is Chimney Cleaning Important?

History of chimneys begins in the late 12th century when houses in the snow region needed furnaces, boilers or fireplace for the smoke to escape the house. Smoke has to be removed from the house and the thus chimney was innovated. Chimneys exist at many places like houses, ships hotels, manufacturing houses, steam locomotives etc.

Original chimneys were built of mud, wood then came bricks and steel. Mostly chimneys now days are made of steel. Ventilators are present in new appliances which are made nowadays. The chimney is always mostly vertical or almost vertical. Flashing seals up the joint in a pitched chimney built towards the roof. The industrial chimney is known as flue stacks and opposes the structure built in the buildings.

Burning causes combustion and this combustion results into smoke along with various residues getting lined up on the surface of the chimney depending upon the materials burnt in the furnaces.

The gres-2 power plant in Kazakhstan is the worlds tallest chimney of the world of height 1377 ft tall.

Why chimney must be cleaned?

After the burning of the materials the smoke evacuates through the chimneys leaving the residues and ash getting stuck up in the lining of the chimney this makes the residue settle and gather there if not cleaned it can lead to choking of the chimney after some years. Therefore, chimney cleaning is to be done on a regular basis. People who cleaned the chimney in the old days were known as chimney sweeps. Climbing boys were used earlier to sweep the chimneys these were orphan boys or brought from their parents, this system was mostly followed in the UK as the flues were large enough for a man to enter. Later the flues diameter was reduced now there was no possibility of a person to enter the chimney, therefore, new ways to clean the chimney had to be innovated. It gave rise to diseases too like cancer and allergies in the chimney sweeps.

New Techniques

With technology, the chimney cleaning and building patterns also changed. Chimneys with smaller flues were made as they were more productive. Vacuum cleaner, specialized chimney brushes, and instruments are used t0 clean the chimneys without the use of people still there exist chimney sweeps and are required for the proper functioning and maintenance of the chimney. This will help you have a clean and maintained chimney.

Electrical Safety and Garden Railroading

Garden railroading mixes large scale model railroading with all the challenges and delights of gardening, water gardening, and landscaping. What doesn’t always mix so well with a naturalistic setting is 110v AC “house current” power (or 240v “mains” outside the US) . Even low voltage wiring is more complex outdoors than it is indoors. Unlike indoor railroading:

  • Routing permanent power to a garden railroad frequently involves burying cables or other labor-intensive operations.
  • Large scale locomotives require more amperage than indoor trains.
  • Large scale railroads typically have longer track runs than indoor trains, making it more complex to get power to the far end of the railroad.
  • Garden train operators are frequently grounded by actual contact with the ground, so there is greater danger of injury from misrouted electricity.
  • Running wires to accessories, turnouts, etc., is much more complex, since you can’t exactly crawl under the table.

That doesn’t mean that garden railroads are inherently unsafe and difficult to wire. In fact, indoor railroaders with good wiring habits easily overcome all of these obstacles. But poor wiring habits, such as poor planning, poor splicing, and poor labeling and record-keeping can cause frustrating—and sometimes dangerous—problems outdoors.

You can take the power pack that came with your starter set outside, hook it up, plug it in, and run your trains. But that doesn’t mean you should, at least as a long-term solution. Not only will you outgrow that device as your layout grows and you run larger trains, it also isn’t designed to be exposed to the elements. If you leave it outside for long, dampness will age it quickly and endanger you or your family, especially if you’re running an extension cord from an outlet that isn’t ground-fault protected. As if physical danger weren’t enough, you also have to face the fact that powering accessories from the same power pack that runs your train is more complicated outdoors than it is indoors.

Garden railroaders usually address the complexity and safety issues of running electric trains outside by one or more of the following approaches:

  • Avoiding wiring altogether
  • Avoiding 110v (or 240v) AC in the garden
  • Using 110v (or 240v) AC more safely
  • Planning ahead

Avoiding Wiring Altogether—Some garden railroaders avoid the problems of routing electricity in the garden altogether. A few approaches they use include:

  • Converting their locomotives to battery/remote control operation. This means that they don’t have to worry about power supplies or about getting power to and through the rails. For a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of battery/remote control operations, refer to the Family Garden Trains article Large Scale Power and Control.
  • Using solar panels to light their buildings—This can be relatively expensive and is not always effective visually, since the solar panels must be exposed, and the amount of light that these solutions produce is minimal, but the technology is improving. Even garden railroaders who run low-voltage wiring to most of their buildings occasionally use a solar solution in a remote cabin or some such that would be a hassle to wire otherwise.
  • Using manually powered or air-pressure powered turnouts—Many remote control users follow their trains around anyway, so throwing turnouts by hand isn’t a big hassle. Others, who wish to operate their turnouts by remote control have adapted Del-Air air pressure systems or built really long “choke cables” to do the work.

Avoiding 110v (or 240v) AC in the Garden—Other garden railroaders, who use track power and don’t mind running wires, reduce the danger inherent of having 110v AC (or 240v outside the US) “live” in an outdoor setting by using only low voltage out-of-doors.

  • Many garden railroaders keep the transformer or transformer/rectifier part of their power chain in the house and run only low-voltage wiring out to the railroad.* That wiring is typically connected to a rheostat (throttle) or to a remote-control receiver (like the Crest 55471), which controls the voltage that actually gets to the rails. Most rheostats and receivers should be taken inside between sessions, but LGB insists that the funny-looking 52120 rheostat is safe for continuous outdoor use (although GR editor Marc Horowitz recommends tying a plastic bag over it to keep it dry when not in use). Hobbyist Walter Sheldon says he has had five similar LGB controllers mounted outside for about 10 years with no problems except some paint fading.
  • If you do run only low-voltage wiring to your railroad, remember also to run a line of 18v ac to power your accessories.
  • Low voltage lighting circuits designed for outdoor use are relatively inexpensive and easy to adapt for lighting garden railroad structures, etc. If you take this approach, be certain to match the lighting of your accessories to the voltage of the circuit—a 12v bulb on an 18v circuit will burn out quickly, but two 12v bulbs in series will last for years, and still be bright enough for most purposes. A big advantage of this approach is that you don’t have to schlep anything out and in when you want to see your town light up.

Using 110v (or 240v) AC More Safely—Let’s face it, many of us have AC running to our pond pumps and patio lights anyway, so going to extremes to avoid running it to our railroad also may be overkill. If you do use AC in or near your garden railroad, here are some tips for improving safety:

  • Use GFI (ground-fault-interrupt) devices to protect all AC circuits running outside or to train sheds, garages or other outbuildings you use. (Outside the US, these are called RCD—for Residual Current Device—also “earth leakage devices.”) Such devices shut off power almost immediately if they sense that electricity is coming out of one wire but not going back in the other one (maybe because it’s finding its way through your feet into a puddle). Nothing can make an AC circuit electrocution proof, but GFI’s reduce the risk. Don’t assume that your external circuits are protected because there is a GFI somewhere in the house. For less than $10 you can buy a GFI that replaces a “normal” outlet—just be certain that you turn of the circuit breaker that powers that outlet before you try to replace it. Once you’ve installed the GFI, test it periodically with the button on the front.
    Hobbyist Ray Turner recommends having a separate GFI for each AC circuit you use outdoors, if possible. That way if something does trip the “interrupt,” it’s a lot easier to troubleshoot than if your pond pump, floodlights, railroad, and jacuzzi are all running off the same GFI.
  • Be professional about buried 110v or 240v lines.
    • Don’t bury 110v AC lines anywhere where you are likely to be digging frequently. For instance, you may consider burying them under a sidewalk or retaining wall; don’t bury them under a “garden plot” where you may be moving deep-rooted plants in the future.
    • Make certain you use wiring that is certified for outdoor and underground use.
    • Make certain that the entire circuit is properly fused and GFI protected.
    • Make certain that you bury the wire at least as deep as local regulations specify (around here, that’s 12″ deep for GFI-protected lines, 24″ for others).
    • Mark and map the location of the buried line so you or your landscapers don’t hit it with a shovel or backhoe.
    • Never, ever run 110v or 240v cables in the same conduit or close to low-voltage lines. Should something cause the lines to short to each other, your accessory wiring or track could be charged to house current (“mains”) levels, resulting in a potentially fatal risk.
  • Keep AC devices protected from the weather. Garden railroaders whose railroads abut the back porch often put their power supplies and controllers into “consoles” they can unplug and set up against the house out of the rain and cover when not in use. In fact, any solution that reduces the hassle of schlepping power and control devices in and out reduces the likelihood that someone will get lazy and leave “indoor-only” devices out where they are exposed to too much moisture, UV, and temperature extremes.
  • Have a firm “demarcation line” beyond which 110v power does not intrude, preferably at the edge of your railroad. That way, you don’t have to worry about whether that cable you fished out of the soil when you were trying to hook up an accessory was high or low voltage. And once you’ve implemented such a boundary, don’t defeat it by running extension cords all over (or worse yet burying extension cords in mulch or soil).
  • Shut off AC power when not in use—Even if you leave AC running to your pond pump or your patio lights 24×7, consider installing one “master switch” that shuts off all other AC circuits when you’re not using them. If the only way to do this is to run separate lines to your garden, that is a small price to pay for the safety of your family.

Planning Ahead— No matter how you plan to power your locomotives and accessories, good planning will increase the longterm safety of your railroad.

  • Plan ahead where you will locate the demarcation between “house current/mains” (110 or 240v) and low-voltage (in the house, at the edge of the garden, etc.), then don’t defeat that safety factor by running extension cords, etc.
  • Use different kinds or colors of wires for different kinds of electricity. Though you can use wire intended for running 110 or 240v wire underground to conduct low voltage, you shouldn’t , because that increases the risk that someone will mistake a 110v or 240v line for a low voltage wire. Also, using different colors for low-voltage AC and for low-voltage DC will simplify your life when you’re wiring accessories and track.
  • Bury twice as much conduit as you think you’ll need, and run strings through each segment so you can fish the wire through easier.
    • Use strings made of nylon or some other synthetic material so they don’t rot in the soil and become useless by the time you need them.
    • Also, remember to tie a new string to any wire you drag through so you don’t lose your ability to fish the next wire through the same conduit.
    • Always use separate conduit for high and low voltage
    • Keep in mind that you may want to automate or light some accessory that doesn’t exist yet. PVC is cheap; workarounds because you didn’t plan can be expensive and time-consuming.
  • Plan for efficient distribution of power to track and accessories. Whether you use wiring busses, or some other technology, think ahead and be consistent, so you don’t find yourself running lines willy-nilly (and maybe hooking things up in dangerous combination) later on, when you have to add one more accessory or track segment you didn’t plan for.
  • Good indoor practices for routing low-voltage power to track and accessories can be adapted to work outdoors if you are mindful of safety issues, and if you make certain to keep your switches, busses, etc. weatherproof (or keep them sheltered from the environment, in which case you should be able to get away with “weather resistant”).

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